What is Rosh Hashanah? A comprehensive guide to the Jewish New Year

Rosh Hashanah is one of the most significant holidays in the Jewish calendar, marking the start of the new year. This holiday is a time for self-reflection, renewal, and spiritual growth. It is celebrated by Jews all over the world and is a time for families to come together and share traditions and customs that have been passed down for centuries. In this comprehensive guide, we will explore the history, significance, and traditions of Rosh Hashanah, as well as provide you with helpful information on how to celebrate this important holiday. So, whether you are a seasoned observer or new to the faith, join us as we dive into the fascinating world of Rosh Hashanah and discover the beauty of this timeless celebration.

Introduction to Rosh Hashanah

Rosh Hashanah, also known as the Jewish New Year, is one of the most significant holidays in the Jewish calendar. It marks the beginning of the High Holy Days, which culminate with Yom Kippur, the Day of Atonement.

The history of Rosh Hashanah can be traced back to ancient times when it was celebrated as the anniversary of the creation of the world. However, over time, it evolved to become a day of remembrance and renewal, symbolizing the start of a new year and a fresh start for all.

Beyond its historical roots, Rosh Hashanah holds immense religious significance for Jews around the world. It is believed that on this day, God inscribes each person’s fate for the upcoming year in the Book of Life, which will then be sealed on Yom Kippur. As such, Rosh Hashanah is a time for introspection, reflection, and repentance. It is an opportunity for individuals to take stock of their past mistakes and seek forgiveness from both God and those they may have wronged.

In addition to its religious connotations, Rosh Hashanah is also a time for joyous celebration and festivities. Families gather together to share meals featuring symbolic foods such as apples dipped in honey, pomegranates, and round challah bread. The sweet taste of these foods is believed to represent the hope for a sweet and fruitful new year.

Overall, Rosh Hashanah is a holiday rich in history, tradition, and religious significance. Whether it’s through prayer, reflection, or festive celebrations, this special day serves as a reminder of the importance of introspection, gratitude, and renewal.

When is Rosh Hashanah celebrated?

The Jewish Calendar

The Jewish calendar, known as the Hebrew calendar, is a lunar calendar used by Jews to determine the dates of religious observances. Unlike the Gregorian calendar used in the Western world, which follows a solar cycle, the Jewish calendar follows the cycles of the moon and consists of 12 to 13 months.

Each month in the Jewish calendar begins with the sighting of the new moon. The first day of the month is called Rosh Chodesh, which means “head of the month.” The Hebrew months have different lengths, ranging from 29 to 30 days, and are named after Babylonian names that were adopted during the Babylonian exile.

The Jewish calendar also has leap years, which occur seven times in a 19-year cycle. In these years, an extra month, Adar II, is added to ensure that the calendar stays in sync with the solar year.

Jewish holidays and celebrations are based on the Hebrew calendar. Some of the major holidays include Rosh Hashanah, Yom Kippur, Sukkot, Passover, and Shavuot. Each holiday has its own significance and traditions.

Rosh Hashanah, for example, is the Jewish New Year and marks the start of the High Holy Days. It falls on the first and second days of the seventh month, Tishrei, and is a time of reflection and repentance. Yom Kippur, which occurs ten days after Rosh Hashanah, is the Day of Atonement and is considered the holiest day of the year in Judaism.

Sukkot, also known as the Feast of Tabernacles, commemorates the Israelites’ journey through the desert and the temporary shelters they lived in during that time. During this holiday, Jews build and decorate temporary outdoor structures called sukkahs and eat their meals in them.

Passover, or Pesach, celebrates the liberation of the Israelites from slavery in Egypt and is observed for eight days. It is a time for Jews to retell the story of the Exodus and participate in a Seder meal where matzah, bitter herbs, and other symbolic foods are eaten.

Shavuot marks the giving of the Torah to the Israelites at Mount Sinai and is also known as the Festival of Weeks. It falls fifty days after Passover and is a time for Jews to gather in synagogues and study the Torah.

In conclusion, the Jewish calendar plays a significant role in the lives of Jews around the world. It is not only a means of determining dates for religious observances but also a way of connecting to Jewish history and tradition.

Symbols and Traditions of Rosh Hashanah

Apples and Honey

Apples and Honey

Apples dipped in honey are one of the most iconic and beloved foods associated with Rosh Hashanah. This sweet combination is a symbol of hope for a sweet new year, filled with happiness and prosperity.

Sweetness and Good Fortune

In Jewish tradition, apples are said to represent the Garden of Eden and the sweetness of life. By dipping them in honey, it is believed that we are inviting positivity and blessings into our lives for the upcoming year.

The act of eating apples and honey during Rosh Hashanah also serves as a reminder of the importance of gratitude. By acknowledging the sweetness of life’s blessings, we can appreciate them even more and attract more good fortune into our lives.

Rosh Hashanah Foods

Beyond just their symbolic significance, apples and honey are also delicious and healthy snack options. Additionally, there are many other traditional foods served during Rosh Hashanah, such as round challah bread, pomegranates, and fish heads.

Each of these foods has its own unique symbolism and significance. For example, the round shape of the challah represents the cycle of life and the continuity of creation, while the pomegranate seeds symbolize the abundance of mitzvot (good deeds) that we hope to perform in the coming year.

Overall, apples and honey are an essential component of Rosh Hashanah celebrations, representing the hope for a sweet and prosperous new year. Whether you are observing the holiday or simply looking for a tasty snack, this timeless combination is sure to satisfy your taste buds and lift your spirits.



One of the most iconic and recognizable symbols of Rosh Hashanah is the shofar, which is a hollowed-out ram’s horn that has been used in Jewish religious ceremonies for thousands of years. The shofar is blown during Rosh Hashanah prayers to mark the beginning of the New Year, and its distinctive sound is instantly recognizable to Jews around the world.

The sound of the shofar is a central part of Rosh Hashanah observance and holds deep spiritual significance. It is believed to represent both the coronation of God as King of the Universe and the sounding of a call to repentance. According to Jewish tradition, the shofar’s sound is meant to awaken the soul and inspire individuals to reflect on their actions over the past year, seek forgiveness for any wrongs they may have committed, and make resolutions for self-improvement in the coming year.

The shofar is played by a skilled musician who blows into the narrow end of the horn, producing a series of distinct notes that vary in pitch and rhythm. There are four main types of shofar sounds that are traditionally blown during Rosh Hashanah services: tekiah (a long, sustained note), shevarim (three medium-length notes), teruah (nine short, staccato notes), and tekiah gedolah (a very long, sustained note).

The shofar is also used as a symbol of Jewish identity and resilience. During times of persecution and oppression, Jews would often hide their Torah scrolls and other religious artifacts, but the shofar was too large to conceal. As a result, it became a powerful symbol of Jewish resistance and perseverance, and is still used today as a reminder of the many challenges that the Jewish people have overcome throughout history.

Overall, the shofar is an integral part of Rosh Hashanah celebrations, and its sound serves as a powerful reminder of the spiritual significance of the holiday. Whether you are blowing the shofar yourself or listening to its haunting notes during prayer services, it is sure to inspire reflection, introspection, and a renewed sense of commitment to one’s faith and values.

Tashlich Ritual

Tashlich Ritual

Tashlich is a meaningful and symbolic ritual observed during Rosh Hashanah. It involves casting away our sins by tossing bread crumbs into a flowing body of water. The word “tashlich” means to “cast off” in Hebrew, and this practice is believed to represent the cleansing of our souls as we start the Jewish New Year with a clean slate.

Casting Away Sins

The act of casting bread crumbs into the water symbolizes casting away our sins, letting go of the mistakes and wrongdoings we have committed over the past year. It is a time for introspection and self-reflection, an opportunity to seek forgiveness from both God and those we have wronged.

Rosh Hashanah Customs

Tashlich is one of the many customs that are unique to Rosh Hashanah. This holiday marks the beginning of the Jewish New Year and is often celebrated by attending synagogue services, blowing the shofar (a hollowed-out ram’s horn), and enjoying festive meals with family and friends.

Water Sources for Tashlich

Traditionally, tashlich is performed near a flowing body of water such as a river or stream. However, if such a location is not available, any body of water will suffice, including a pool or fountain. Some communities even create artificial streams specifically for this ritual.

In recent years, there has also been a growing trend towards using environmentally-friendly alternatives to bread crumbs, such as birdseed or biodegradable materials, to avoid polluting the water.

Overall, the tashlich ritual is a powerful and introspective way to mark the start of the Jewish New Year. It reminds us to reflect on our actions, seek forgiveness, and let go of the past as we move forward with hope and renewal.

Rosh Hashanah Greetings and Wishes

Traditional Wishes

Traditional Wishes

Rosh Hashanah, the Jewish New Year, is a time to reflect on the past year and make resolutions for the coming one. It is also a time to connect with loved ones by sending them Rosh Hashanah wishes. Some of the most common traditional wishes include “L’shana tova” and “Ketivah, chatimah tovah”.

“L’shana tova” literally translates to “for a good year”. This is a straightforward and general wish that can be used in many contexts. It is often used as a greeting during Rosh Hashanah services or when meeting friends and family during the holiday.

“Ketivah, chatimah tovah” is a more complex wish that is typically used in the days leading up to Yom Kippur, the Day of Atonement. Its literal translation is “may you be written and sealed for a good year” and it refers to the belief that on Rosh Hashanah, God inscribes everyone’s fate for the coming year in the Book of Life. On Yom Kippur, the book is sealed, and the fate of each person is finalized. By wishing someone “Ketivah, chatimah tovah”, you are expressing your hope that they will be granted a favorable outcome in the coming year.

It’s important to note that Rosh Hashanah greetings aren’t just about the words themselves – they also carry deep religious and cultural significance. They are a way of connecting with others and reaffirming one’s commitment to their faith and community. By sharing these traditional wishes, we are participating in a centuries-old custom that helps us stay connected to our heritage and values.

So this Rosh Hashanah, don’t forget to share some traditional wishes with your loved ones. Whether it’s “L’shana tova” or “Ketivah, chatimah tovah”, your words have the power to bring joy and hope to those around you.

Jewish Greeting Cards

Sending Rosh Hashanah greeting cards to friends and family is a long-standing tradition that many Jews look forward to every year. With the rise of digital communication, e-cards have become increasingly popular as a way to send free Rosh Hashanah cards conveniently and instantly.

There are various websites and platforms that offer a wide selection of Rosh Hashanah e-cards, including JibJab, Blue Mountain, and Punchbowl. These sites allow you to choose from a range of designs and customize your message before sending it to your loved ones. Some even offer virtual envelopes and stamps for that extra touch of authenticity.

Many Jewish organizations also offer free Rosh Hashanah cards to their members or supporters. For instance, The Jewish National Fund offers a collection of beautiful Rosh Hashanah-themed cards on their website that you can personalize and send for free.

When it comes to Jewish New Year messages, there are endless possibilities. You can go with traditional wishes like “L’shana tova” (for a good year) or “Ketivah, chatimah tovah” (may you be written and sealed for a good year). Or you can get creative and write a heartfelt message that reflects your personal relationship with the recipient.

Regardless of how you choose to send your Rosh Hashanah greetings, the most important thing is that you take the time to connect with your loved ones and show them that you care. In today’s fast-paced world, a thoughtful message can go a long way in strengthening relationships and bringing people together.

Rosh Hashanah Prayers and Services

High Holidays Prayers

High Holidays Prayers

The High Holidays, which include Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur, are a time for introspection, reflection, and renewal. These holidays are marked by special prayers that differ from those recited during regular services. Here are some of the most significant prayers of the High Holidays:


Selichot are penitential poems and prayers that are recited in preparation for the High Holidays. They are usually recited in the days leading up to Rosh Hashanah and continue through Yom Kippur. The word “selichot” comes from the Hebrew word “slicha,” which means forgiveness. The Selichot are meant to help us seek forgiveness for our sins and ask for God’s mercy.

Rosh Hashanah Machzor

The Rosh Hashanah Machzor is a prayer book used during the Rosh Hashanah services. It contains all the prayers, readings, and rituals specific to the holiday. The Machzor is different from the regular siddur used for daily services because it includes special additions, such as the shofar blowing and the Tashlich ceremony.

Yom Kippur liturgy

The Yom Kippur liturgy is the most solemn and intensive of the Jewish calendar. It includes a long list of confessions and supplications, culminating in the Neilah service, which is the final service of the holiday. The Yom Kippur liturgy is intended to help us reflect on our misdeeds and seek atonement for our sins.

In conclusion, these three prayers – Selichot, Rosh Hashanah Machzor, and Yom Kippur liturgy – are essential components of the High Holidays. Through them, we seek forgiveness, reflect on our deeds, and strive to improve ourselves in the coming year.

Yom Kippur

Yom Kippur

Yom Kippur, also known as the Day of Atonement, is considered the holiest day in the Jewish calendar. It is a day of solemn reflection and repentance, during which Jews fast and pray for forgiveness of their sins.

Confession and Repentance

Central to Yom Kippur is the concept of teshuva, or repentance. Jews are encouraged to take stock of their actions over the past year and seek forgiveness from those they have wronged. This process of introspection and confession is essential for personal growth and spiritual renewal.

Kol Nidre Prayer

The evening service of Yom Kippur begins with the Kol Nidre prayer, which is recited three times. This hauntingly beautiful melody sets the tone for the solemnity and introspection of the day. The prayer is a legal formula that nullifies any vows or promises made unintentionally, paving the way for a fresh start.


In conclusion, Yom Kippur is a time when Jews around the world come together to seek forgiveness and make amends. It is a time of introspection and renewal, where individuals can reflect on their past actions and strive to be better in the coming year. The Kol Nidre prayer serves as a powerful reminder of the importance of forgiveness and the need for a clean slate.
Rosh Hashanah is a time of reflection, renewal, and celebration for the Jewish community around the world. The holiday carries great significance in Jewish history and culture and continues to be celebrated with enthusiasm and respect today. From the customs and traditions associated with Rosh Hashanah to the prayers and greetings exchanged during this time, there is much to learn and appreciate about this special occasion. As we enter a new year, let us embrace the spirit of Rosh Hashanah by reflecting on our actions, seeking forgiveness, and renewing our commitment to our faith, families, and communities. With its messages of hope, love, and unity, Rosh Hashanah reminds us of the power of faith and the importance of coming together to celebrate life’s blessings, even in times of hardship. May the lessons of Rosh Hashanah inspire us all to lead purposeful and fulfilling lives and to cherish the relationships that matter most to us. L’shana tova u’metukah – may you have a happy and sweet new year!

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